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Glutathione S-transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1) is an enzyme with an important antioxidant role and is encoded for by the GSTP1 gene. Glutathione is an important antioxidant molecule which readily neutralizes reactive oxygen species, a major cause of oxidative stress, on other molecules 1. Whilst glutathione can act independently to neutralize reactive oxygen species, it often requires the action of GSTP1 in order to neutralize xenobiotic reactive oxygen species 2. Xenobiotics are molecules which are not normally produced, or expected to be present in the body and xenobiotic reactive oxygen species include a diverse range of environmental factors including herbicides, pesticides and several drugs.

There is one SNP in the GSTP1 gene associated with poor health outcomes, rs1695 or A313G.


Immune Health
rsID Number Major Allele Minor Allele Minor Allele Frequency (%) Major Amino Acid Minor Amino Acid
rs1695 a g 33 Ile Val

Risk Description

There is some evidence that the ‘G’ allele of A313G in the GSTP1 gene is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma 3,4. However, other studies have described an opposite effect whereby ‘A’ is the risk allele 5 generating some confusion.

A potential hypothesis to explain this difference may lie in the different populations studied. The ‘G’ allele was associated with an increased risk of asthma at a baseline level, whereas the ‘A’ allele was only associated with an increased risk of asthma in children who undertook frequent exercise in an area with high ozone levels.

How the ‘G’ allele can be worst at baseline, but provide a protective effect when under high oxidative stress is unknown and requires further investigation in asthma and other respiratory diseases such as COPD 6.

Direct Nutrients:*

Ingredient Active Ingredient Effect

Glutathione is a potent antioxidant which can act alone or in conjunction with GSTP1 to remove harmful oxidative species.

It is not clear exactly which allele of A313G is associated with an increased risk under various conditions. However, glutathione supplementation can be recommended for carriers of either allele especially those who live in areas with a high level of atmospheric ozone.

Indirect Nutrients:*

Ingredient Active Ingredient Effect
Vitamin E α-tocopherol

Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant which can limit the development of inflammation following oxidative stress.

In those carrying the risk ‘G’ allele of A313G who are thought to have a reduced anti-oxidative capacity supplementation with vitamin E had a large beneficial effect 7. A positive effect was also observed in those carrying the ‘A’ allele although to a lesser extent.

Discuss this information with your doctor before taking any course of action.


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