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Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure, and is encoded for by the ACE gene. ACE converts the inactive angiotensin I into its active form angiotensin II 1. Anigiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning that when it binds to its receptor it causes blood vessels to constrict, this has the effect of increasing blood pressure 2. ACE can also breakdown active vasodilators, which dilate blood vessels, further increasing blood pressure 3.

There are two forms of ACE produced arising from changes in the genetic code of the gene, ACE I and ACE D which correspond to the insertion (I) or deletion (D) of a short region of DNA within the gene. Those carrying the I allele typically display reduced ACE activity compared to those carrying the D allele. Whilst not directly responsible for the change there is one SNP which can act as a marker to identify those carrying the I or D allele; rs4343 or G2328A4.


Science Grade
Heart Health
rsID Number Major Allele Minor Allele Minor Allele Frequency (%) Major Amino Acid Minor Amino Acid
rs4343 a g 46 Thr Thr

Risk Description

As discussed above there are two forms of ACE produced depending on changes in the genetic code of the gene ACE I and ACE D. The risk allele ‘G’ of G2328A in ACE has been shown to act as a marker for those carrying the deletion (D) allele 4.

In those carrying the risk allele ‘G’ of G2328A levels of ACE are increased which leads to increased processing of angiotensin I to its active form angiotensin II. During exercise this means that blood pressure will increase more rapidly in those carrying the ‘G’ allele. This increased risk of high blood pressure is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, and weight gain 5,6.

Interestingly there is some evidence that those with the ‘G’ allele may perform better at sports requiring short bursts of intense activity such as sprinting, whereas those with the ‘A’ allele may perform better at endurance sporting events. It is proposed that this is due to changes in heart physiology with those carrying the ‘G’ allele having larger hearts which can respond more quickly but are less suited to endurance actives 7,8.

Indirect Nutrients:*

Ingredient Active Ingredient Effect
Nattō Nattokinase

Nattokinase is an enzyme which is extracted and purified from a Japanese food called nattō, which is made from fermented soybeans.

Nattokinase has an excellent capacity to break down fibrin clots, with an overall beneficial effect on blood pressure and cardiovascular health 9,10. Supplementation may prove beneficial to those carrying the ‘G’ allele of G2328A.

Ubiquinol Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CQ10) is a naturally occurring coenzyme with a diverse range of positive health benefits, which includes a protective effect in those with elevated blood pressure 11. Therefore, supplementation may prove beneficial to those carrying the ‘G’ allele of G2328A.

Nutritional Contraindications:*

Ingredient Active Ingredient Effect

High sodium diets have a significant association with high blood pressure 12. Those carrying the ‘G’ allele of G2328A, may consider a reduction in dietary sodium intake.

Discuss this information with your doctor before taking any course of action.


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