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John, based on a review of your genetic data, your diet type is Mediterranean.

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Five food rules:
  • Choose plant fats over saturated animal fats
  • Get most of your protein from plant sources and wild caught fish
  • Choose sheep and goat dairy over cow dairy
  • Avoid processed grains
  • Whole grains, leafy greens and root vegetables are staples

Based on a review of your genetic profile, you fall into our Mediterranean diet type. The Mediterranean diet emphasizes plant based proteins, olive oil, high consumption of leafy greens, fatty fish and whole grains as staple foods, with some pasture raised poultry, goat and sheep dairy and grass fed beef as supplemental foods to be enjoyed only on occasion. When eating animal proteins, opt for small portions and lean cuts.

Some genotypes are best served limiting or avoiding most dietary fats, especially saturated fat, as consumption increases their risk for heart disease. Others can eat a higher fat diet that includes saturated fat and be healthy. As a Mediterranean genotype, you fall right in the middle of our fat analysis. You can eat a diverse range of fats, including some saturated fat, the issue is how much you eat. A weekly 4 oz. portion of lean grass fed beef will be fine for you, but eating beef everyday will not be the ideal diet for your heart health. Animal sources of saturated fat should be reserved as a treat to be enjoyed a few times a week, leaving plant foods as staples of your diet. The butter coffee, Paleo style diets are not for you. A good balance would be to eat predominantly plant proteins and wild fish during the week, and if you’re so inclined, more high quality animal protein on the weekend when you dine out with friends.

In addition to fat, another important point of analysis is blood sugar. Foods that spike blood sugar are said to be “high glycemic” since they immediately cause a rise in the amount of glucose that circulates in our blood. When these glucose levels remain high, the risk for type 2 diabetes goes up as does the risk for inflammation. Genetics play a role in our ability to clear blood sugar down to healthy levels after eating carbohydrates, and your genotype is more likely to do a good job with blood sugar clearance than most others. This is good news because it means you can enjoy a wide range of carbohydrates, including some higher glycemic carbs, such as whole grains, potatoes, and white rice. However, just because you have a low risk of elevated blood sugar, don’t make the mistake of relying too heavily on carbohydrate sources, such as refined grains, that the body quickly turns into sugar. Especially with refined grains (grains that have been milled in a factory like flour and tortillas) blood sugar isn’t the only concern. These types of foods can feed bad strains of bacteria in the gut, which can alter the balance of microbes in your digestive tract. As such, when consuming carbohydrates, opt for sources that are also high in fiber as fiber slows the rise in blood sugar associated with eating carbs.

You do not carry genetic markers for lactose intolerance, which means you may be able to enjoy dairy products in moderation. The main concern with dairy is the saturated fat content as well as the proteins in dairy, called casein. For many people, the proteins in cow dairy are more difficult to digest than the proteins in goat and sheep dairy. Goat and sheep dairy products, like feta cheese, contain a different type of casein than does dairy produced from cows. One of the hallmarks of the Mediterranean diet is a preference for goat and sheep dairy products over cow, this will be a good rule for you to stick with as well.

You can enjoy a wide array of proteins, but based on your fat metabolism markers, plant sources of protein as well as wild fish should be your staples. Pasture raised poultry and grass fed beef can be enjoyed a couple times per week.

Fat Breakout

The source, type and amount of fat we consume has been the focus of Western dietary advice for decades, and hundreds of genes have been investigated to identify links. We've refined these genes down to what we consider to be the key players, and believe you could benefit from keeping a close eye on dietary fat intake.

Analysis of your SNPs has suggested that a Mediterranean diet will prove beneficial for your general wellbeing. This diet type is characterized by a slightly lower overall fat intake, with an associated increase in carbohydrates, omega 3 rich proteins and plant proteins. Because you fall into the middle of our fat analysis based on your genetics, a good way to determine whether you are eating a healthy level of fat is to have your blood work done regularly. Your doctor can measure markers like LDL-P, APOB, and LDL-C, all of which are indicators of increased risk for heart disease when out of range. Having said that, you should definitely avoid high fat diets.

Dietary fat is a key energy source for our bodies, providing energy over extended time periods rather than the short, sharp spikes that simple sugars offer. However, fat and saturated fats in particular, have been seen as a dietary bad guy for a long time. Due to their structure, saturated fats are likely to form solids at room temperature, and they can operate in the same way in the body. By increasing saturated fat consumption, it was proposed that plaques, sticky masses of solid fat, were more likely to form in the blood vessels, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

However, despite many years of encouraging diets low in saturated fat, cardiovascular disease and obesity are only becoming more prevalent. We now know that the response to saturated fat varies based on an individual’s genetics. Several well-designed studies have shown that sugars, which are commonly used to replace saturated fats in prepared foods, may actually be more harmful to health, and that in some instances, a high unsaturated fat intake (especially omega 6 polyunsaturated fats found in vegetable oils and processed foods) can also be harmful to health.

With your reduced fat intake, the quality of the fats you do choose to eat becomes paramount. The Mediterranean diet aligns more closely with traditional historical health advice to focus on good quality monounsaturated fats. However, you should still ensure that your diet includes good quality saturated and polyunsaturated fats, and importantly you shouldn’t replace fat intake with high-GI carbohydrates.

20% SaturatedLean grass fed beef, avocado, pastured poultry
30% MonounsaturatedAvocado, olives and olive oil, macadamia nuts, pecans, almonds and almond butter, cashews, pistachios, brazil nuts
30% Polyunsaturated omega 3Wild salmon, mackerel, walnuts, hemp seeds and hemp milk, flax seeds, chia seeds, algal oil
20% Polyunsaturated omega 6Flax, canola and vegetable oil, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds
AvoidFatty meats, palm oil, dairy, seed oils, butter, coconut products
Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
LDL-P
<1,000 nmol/L
1,000-1,599 nmol/L
>1,599 nmol/L
APOB
<80 mg/dl
80-120 mg/dl
>120 mg/dl
LDL-C
<100 mg/dl
100-160 mg/dl
>160 mg/dl
Triglycerides
<150 mg/dl
150-200 mg/dl
>200 mg/dl

Glycemic Breakout

Carbohydrates are types of “macromolecules” built from individual sugar molecules. They can exist as simple sugar molecules (monosaccharides), or more complex chains of two or more sugar molecules (disaccharides and polysaccharides). The simple sugars are turned into glucose and rapidly absorbed into the blood stream, whereas the complex carbohydrates are slower to digest and take more time to be converted into glucose.

It is this process of breaking down and absorbing carbohydrates that causes our blood sugar levels to rise. The simple “fast carbs” cause an immediate spike, whereas the complex “slow carbs” don’t spike blood sugar as rapidly. When blood sugar rises, the pancreas then makes insulin, which is the hormone responsible for helping the body absorb glucose so it can be used for energy. Our cells love glucose, converting it into the energy currency, ATP, which drives all the processes in our body. Historically, pure glucose was in short supply and our neolithic ancestors would have gorged on it whenever possible. However, these days, with the prevalence of processed foods, simple and easily digestible sugars are too readily available. This has lead to huge changes in the average person’s blood sugar level, and this is frequently linked with the increase in diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity and cancer.

The many forms of carbohydrate in our diet represent an essential energy source, but how our body metabolizes different carbohydrate sources varies widely, with genetics playing a key role. Some of us are at greater risk for chronically elevated blood sugar levels. In these genotypes, insulin can’t get rid of all the sugar in the blood. This leaves blood sugar elevated, which causes inflammation. In other genotypes, blood sugar levels return to normal much more quickly after eating carbohydrates.

The glycemic index (GI) metric has been developed to help us identify how rapidly our body will convert carbohydrate sources into glucose. A GI value of 55 is often identified as the cutoff between low and high-GI foods. Regardless of genotype, as a general rule it is always best to lean towards lower GI slow carb sources, however, the need is a bigger priority for some than for others.

Our panel of SNPs is specifically targeted at informing you of how you will respond to various carbohydrate sources.

After analyzing your carbohydrate genes, the good news is that you will perform well on a mixed carbohydrate diet. Given that you are also able to consume a relatively high level of fat as an alternative energy source, you should feel free to intersperse your diet with some high-GI fast carb foods, but should always attempt to maintain a majority low-GI slow carb intake. While you have a genetic profile that can more efficiently clear the spikes in blood sugar they cause, refined grains, such as corn tortillas, bread products and pasta are not healthy options as a staple, regardless of genotype. They can be enjoyed as a treat, but should be limited to a few portions per week.

10% SugarsIn season organic fruits from the farmers market, blueberries, local honey, banana
65% FiberYams, sweet potatoes, potatoes, cassava root, avocado, kale, leafy greens, coconut, spinach, broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, green beans, sauerkraut, kimchi
25% GrainsGlyphosate free rolled oats, buckwheat, quinoa, wild rice, brown rice white rice, amaranth
AvoidRefined sugars, processed wheat products, instant oats, processed corn products, corn chips
Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
Fasting blood glucose
<70-99 mg/dl
100-125 mg/dl
<70 or >125 mg/dl
HbA1c
<5.7%
5.7-6.4%
>6.4%

Protein Breakout

We get to protein last, but not because protein isn’t important. Eating enough protein is vital to ensure the body has sufficient building materials to make its own proteins, and proteins can even act as an alternative energy source when fat and carbohydrate stores are low. However, digesting these complex molecules can be a difficult process and there are several ways in which nutritional wellbeing can be affected.

An analysis of your SNPs related to protein digestion and metabolism indicates you should have little issue digesting protein from a wide variety of sources. Given the reduction in dietary fat intake associated with the Mediterranean diet, you should pay special attention to your protein intake focusing on lean protein sources rather than those that are richer in fat.

55% PlantLentils, black beans, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, pinto beans, navy beans, chickpeas, walnuts, broccoli, natto
15% MeatSmall portions of lean grass fed beef, pastured poultry
25% SeafoodWild salmon, sardines, cod
5% DairyGoat and sheep dairy products, pasture eggs
AvoidProcessed meats, fatty meat, pork, butter, factory farmed meat, processed plant proteins such as tempeh
Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
Uric Acid
<7 mg/dl
7-10 mg/dl
>10 mg/dl
C reactive protein
<1 mg/dl
1-3 mg/dl
>3 mg/dl

HDL:LDL Ratio

Along with fat, cholesterol has long been thought of as the other dietary bad boy. While often lumped together with dietary fat, cholesterol is actually a distinct molecule with many important functions. Cholesterol was, and often still is, thought of as something that you should aim to reduce. However, as new research emerges, health authorities are taking a softer stance on cholesterol. Notably, the USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee reversed its long-standing recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol intake in 2015.

The issue is not so much cholesterol as where it ends up in the body. Cells need cholesterol to function, but cholesterol does damage when it ends up in the artery wall. Cholesterol is transported through the blood by lipoproteins, which you can think of as “cholesterol taxis.” In fact, you’ve probably heard of low-density lipoproteins (LDL - often associated with saturated fats) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL - often associated with unsaturated fats). The LDL taxis deliver cholesterol to tissues throughout the body, but sometimes take a wrong term and end up sticking to the artery walls. Too many taxis taking wrong turns can eventually lead to heart disease. By contrast, the HDL taxis are responsible for removing excess cholesterol to the liver, and are much better navigators.

Certain genetics markers are associated with an increased number of LDL cholesterol taxis on the road, and the greater the number of LDL taxis, or particles, the greater the risk for heart disease. Saturated fat consumption will raise LDL particle numbers for some genotypes dramatically, and have little impact for others. In addition, genetics play a role in the ratio between LDL to HDL, which is also an important factor in the heart disease discussion. As such, we report on the LDL genes as well as the genetic factors that play a role in LDL:HDL ratio.

Your LDL Genes

We have identified that you may have issues maintaining a good HDL:LDL ratio and would therefore recommend observing your circulating LDL:HDL ratio, which can be determined with a simple non-invasive lab test. However, by maintaining a diet low in saturated fats you should naturally be addressing this issue. Food choice doesn’t have as big of an impact on HDL as it does LDL, so if you find your numbers are out of range, try incorporating more plant based foods that have been shown to help decrease LDL, such as olive oil, beans, certain whole grains like oats, flax, nuts, chia seeds, and even avocados. When LDL markers are out of range, it can be a good idea to cut down even further on the amount of saturated fat consumed in the diet.

Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
LDL-C
<100 mg/dl
100-160 mg/dl
>160 mg/dl
HDL-C
>50 mg/dl
40-50 mg/dl
<40 mg/dl

Methylation

Methylation has been a hot topic the last few years, but what is it? At the biochemical level, methylation refers to the addition of a methyl group to another molecule. This addition of a simple methyl group can fundamentally change the function of proteins, the expression of our genes and a whole host of other processes in the body as well.

If you’re interested in nutrigenomic genes, the most famous one of all sits in the methylation cycle which converts dietary folate into a variety of other products key in the processes described above. MTHFR C677T is perhaps the most well studied and well understood nutrition related SNP out there, and as it sits centrally in the methylation cycle is often linked with methylation issues in the body.

It is important to note though that while the MTHFR enzyme is incredibly important in regulating methylation it doesn’t act alone and there are numerous other enzymes involved in the pathway, many of which have their own associated SNPs. One important fact to remember when looking at the methylation cycle is the role of B vitamins, nearly every enzyme in the cycle requires a B vitamin co-factor in order to function correctly, providing us with the ideal mechanism to improve their function.

Your Methylation status: High Risk

Based on a review of all your SNPs in the methylation cycle we have determined that you are at a high risk of having issues with this pathway. We would therefore recommend that you consider supplementing your diet with a moderate to high dose B multivitamin that includes the methylated version of these vitamins. You may also wish to investigate each SNP at an individual level and tailor your vitamin B intake accordingly, but we would always recommend starting at a very low dose, and working upwards, while ensuring you have a ready supply of other B vitamins in your diet. Do not take any new supplement without first discussing with your doctor. For information on choosing a B vitamin and selecting dose, see this blog post.

Methodology and Your Genes

The purpose of this app is to inform you about the influence your personal genetic code can have on your nutritional intake and general wellbeing.

Split into several sections our main focus is the overall dietary plan. By analyzing 66 SNPs related to fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism we have assigned you to a particular diet type with associated recipes and strategies you can use to maximise your well being. This top level overview is then further broken down into fat, carbohydrate and protein sections where we discuss your SNPs in detail, recommend personal superfoods and foods to avoid and potential lab tests to discuss with your doctor.

The SNPs in each category have been assigned a Science Score based on a thorough review of the scientific literature, which weights its importance in our models. The more and better quality the evidence, the higher the weighting. We then assess your genotyping results against every SNP, identifying which (if any SNPs) may be of interest to you while also generating your dietary plan, and various risk scores.

We believe this approach of giving you top level information, but also allowing you to delve further into specific categories, genes and even SNPs is the best way to provide you with specific information to inform your dietary and supplementary choices.

Macronutrient Fat
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
PPARGrs1801282AT- / -
APOA2rs5082AG+ / -
FTOrs9939609AT- / -
FTOrs1121980AG- / -
ACErs4343GA+ / -
TCF7L2rs7903146TC- / -
FADS1rs174547CT- / -
ABCG8rs6544713TC- / -
ADIPOQrs17366743CT- / -
CBSrs28934891GC- / -
CBSrs5742905GA- / -
NOS3rs1800779GA+ / -
NOS3rs1800783AT+ / -
MTHFRrs1801133AG+ / -
MTHFRrs1801131GT+ / -
ACYP2rs11125529CADid not test
LPArs10455872GA- / -
LPArs3798220CT- / -
LIPGrs4939883TC- / -
LIPCrs10468017CT+ / -
LPLrs12678919AG+ / +
LDLRrs6511720TG- / -
ADCY5rs11708067GA+ / -
APOEN/AN/AN/ADid not test
GCKRrs780094TCDid not test
Saturated Fats
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
APOA2rs5082AG+ / -
FTOrs9939609AT- / -
FTOrs1121980AG- / -
ACErs4343GA+ / -
TCF7L2rs5082TC- / -
FADS1rs5082CT- / -
PCSK9rs11591147GTDid not test
PCSK9rs72646508CTDid not test
Lipoproteins
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
LPArs10455872GA- / -
LPArs3798220CT- / -
LIPGrs4939883TC- / -
LIPCrs10468017CT+ / -
LPLrs12678919AG+ / +
LDLRrs6511720TG- / -
PCSK9rs11591147GTDid not test
PCSK9rs28362286CADid not test
PCSK9rs72646508CTDid not test
PCSK9rs28362263GADid not test
Carbohydrates
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
PLIN1rs894160TC+ / -
PPARGrs1801282GC- / -
ADIPOQrs17366743CT- / -
FTOrs1421085CT- / -
ADCY5rs11708067GA+ / -
FADS1rs174550CT- / -
GCKRrs780094AC- / -
MTNR1Brs10830963GC+ / -
SLC2A2rs11920090ATDid not test
ADORA2Ars10885122TG- / -
MADDrs7944584TA+ / -
Dairy
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
MCM6rs4988235GA- / -
MCM6rs182549CT- / -
Histamine
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
ALDH2rs671AG- / -
AOC1rs10156191TC- / -
AOC1rs1049742TC- / -
AOC1rs35070995CA- / -
AOC1rs45558339GA- / -
AOC1rs1049793GC- / -
HNMTrs11558538CTDid not test
IL8rs4073AT- / -
Methylation
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Score
MTHFRrs1801131GT+ / -
MTHFRrs1801133AG+ / -
CBSrs28934891GC- / -
CBSrs5742905GA- / -
MTRrs1805087GA- / -
MTRRrs1801394GA+ / -
COMTrs4680AG+ / +
COMTrs4633TC+ / +
MTHFD1rs2236225AG+ / +
SLC19A1rs1051266TC- / -

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