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John, based on a review of your genetic data, your diet type is Mediterranean.

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How to read this report

The genetic markers and studies selected for this report represent the best and most recent research in the field of nutrigenomics, however, research in this field is ongoing. Due to the fact that certain genes have been studied more than others, we rank each one of your genetic "calls" with a Science Grade. The higher the Science Grade, the more research that has been published on that individual gene, and therefore the more confident we are of its impact on nutrition. The genes listed in this report are broken down in more detail in our guide to nutrigenomics, which you can view here, or you can select individual genes to explore further at the bottom of the report under the Methodology and Your Genes section.

GeneYour GenotypeScience Grade
ABCG8- / -
MTHFR+ / -
Key
+ / +two copies (homozygous) of the risk "mutation" of the gene
+ / -one copy (heterozygous) of the risk "mutation" of the gene
- / -inherited "wild type" for normal version of the gene
Five food rules:
  • Choose omega 3 fats over saturated fats
  • Get the bulk of your protein from plants and wild caught fish
  • Choose sheep and goat dairy over cow dairy
  • Avoid processed grains
  • Whole grains, leafy greens, legumes and root vegetables are staples

Overview

Based on a review of your genetic profile, you fall into our Mediterranean diet type. The Mediterranean diet emphasizes plant based proteins, olive oil, high consumption of leafy greens, fatty fish and whole grains as staple foods, with some pasture raised poultry, goat and sheep dairy and grass fed beef as supplemental foods to be enjoyed on occasion. When eating animal proteins, opt for small portions and leaner cuts.

As a Mediterranean genotype, you can eat a diverse range of fats, including some saturated fat, the issue is how much you eat. A weekly 4 oz. portion of lean grass fed beef will be fine for you, but eating beef everyday will not be the ideal diet for your heart health. Animal sources of saturated fat should be reserved as a treat to be enjoyed a few times a week, leaving plant foods as staples of your diet. The butter coffee, Paleo style diets are not for you. A good balance would be to eat predominantly plant proteins and wild fish during the week, and if you’re so inclined, more high quality animal protein on the weekend when you dine out with friends. To determine whether your dietary fat intake is balanced for optimal health, we recommend using an app like Cronometer which gives you a daily report on omega 3 to omega 6 ratios, as well as saturated fat intake. If possible, try to keep the omega 6 to omega 3 ratio at no more than 5:1 in Cronomoter, and as we have already mentioned, keep the saturated fat on the lower side.

In addition to fat, another important point of analysis is blood sugar. Foods that spike blood sugar are said to be “high glycemic” since they immediately cause a rise in the amount of glucose that circulates in our blood. When these glucose levels remain high, the risk for type 2 diabetes goes up as does the risk for inflammation. Genetics play a role in our ability to clear blood sugar down to healthy levels after eating carbohydrates, and your genotype is more likely to do an efficient job with blood sugar clearance than most others. This is good news because it means you can enjoy a wide range of carbohydrates, including some higher glycemic carbs, such as whole grains, potatoes, and white rice. However, just because you have a low risk of elevated blood sugar, don’t make the mistake of relying too heavily on carbohydrate sources, such as refined grains, that the body quickly turns into sugar. Especially with refined grains (grains that have been milled in a factory like flour and tortillas) blood sugar isn’t the only concern. These types of foods can feed bad strains of bacteria in the gut, which can alter the balance of microbes in your digestive tract. As such, when consuming carbohydrates, opt for sources that are also high in fiber as fiber slows the rise in blood sugar associated with eating carbs.

You do not carry genetic markers for lactose intolerance, which means you may be able to enjoy dairy products in moderation. The main concern with dairy is the saturated fat content as well as the proteins in dairy, called casein. For many people, the proteins in cow dairy are more difficult to digest than the proteins in goat and sheep dairy. Goat and sheep dairy products, like feta cheese, contain a different type of casein than does dairy produced from cows. One of the hallmarks of the Mediterranean diet is a preference for goat and sheep dairy products over cow, this will be a good rule for you to stick with as well.

You can enjoy a wide array of proteins, but based on your fat metabolism markers, plant sources of protein as well as wild fish should be your staples. Pasture raised poultry, wild game, and grass fed beef can be enjoyed a couple times per week.

Fat Breakout

Mixed Fat

You don’t need to be on a low fat diet, but should limit saturated fat and processed omega 6 rich fats like vegetable oils.

The latest in nutrition science has taught us that people respond very differently to dietary fat based, in part, on genetics. The source, type and amount of fat we consume has been the focus of western dietary advice for decades, and hundreds of genes have been investigated to better identify people who stand to benefit from lower fat diets. We've refined the best studied heart health genes down to what we consider to be the key players, and offer the insights below as a strategy for keeping major risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, such as LDL-C and LDL-P, in a healthy range.

The Mediterranean diet lowers overall fat intake and instead emphasizes greater consumption of fiber rich carbohydrates. Why? Based on our scoring system, we believe your genotype is more likely to make significant amounts of “extra” cholesterol when eating a diet rich in saturated fat. While we need cholesterol to be healthy, and 80% of cholesterol in the body is made by the body, too much cholesterol circulating in lipoproteins, called LDL, is bad for heart health. Put another way, eating a diet higher in saturated fat will likely cause significant increases in your LDL-C numbers. Consider this study which evaluated healthy individuals on a high fat diet for changes in cholesterol. Some saw LDL-C go up by 107% on the high fat diet, while others saw an increase of only 5%. The average increase in LDL-C was 44%.

We estimate you will be closer to the average LDL-C increase of 44% than the 5% group when eating too much saturated fat. While it’s possible you could see a substantial uptick in LDL-C when eating a high saturated fat diet, your triglycerides are more likely to be in a normal range which is a sign of the ability to use “carb fuel” more efficiently.

Saturated fats have gotten a bad rap for a long time, but no two people respond in exactly the same way to dietary fat. While saturated fat will increase LDL-C in all people to some degree, those with a genetic predisposition see the largest increases. When cholesterol numbers go up to dangerous levels while eating saturated fat rich foods, it’s a sign that fat in the diet should be curtailed. In these people, foods like butter, cream, cheese, meats, and eggs, should be limited or excluded altogether.

Highest Saturated Fat Foods

Biggest sources of saturated fat in the American diet:

Pizza/dairy icon
Pizza, cheese and dairy products
Meat and processed meats icon
Meat and processed meats
Grain-based desserts icon
Grain-based desserts
Butter icon
Butter
Coconut products icon
Coconut products such as MCT oil

However, fat is not the whole story when it comes to heart health. Several well-designed studies have shown that sugars, which are commonly used to replace saturated fats in prepared foods, may actually be more harmful to health for some people, and that in some instances, a high unsaturated fat intake (especially omega 6 polyunsaturated fats found in vegetable oils and processed foods) can also be harmful to health.

Excuse us for a vast oversimplification, but when fat and cholesterol is the predominant problem, people tend to see increases in their LDL-C and cholesterol numbers. Conversely, when the body can’t handle a diet high in simple carbohydrates and sugar, triglycerides and insulin levels rise to unhealthy levels. In some, both fat and sugar is an issue simultaneously, and there is never a time when dessert and sweet foods are a healthy choice. You can think of LDL as “fat taxis” that shuttle cholesterol, triglyceride and plant fats around the body. While you don’t necessarily want LDL at zero, lower is better for heart health. Why? The fewer taxis on the road, the less likely one takes a “wrong turn” and delivers a piece of fat into your artery wall, which is the triggering event for heart disease.

Based on an analysis of your fat metabolism genes, we believe it’s more likely you will see “cholesterol rich” LDL, rather than “triglyceride rich” LDL when eating a diet that is too high in saturated fat. This does not mean sugar is a healthy food for you, if you eat sweets and refined carbohydrates to excess, triglycerides will go high as well. However, Mediterranean genotypes are likely to use “carb fuel” more efficiently than “fat fuel.” A diet that limits saturated fats, and emphasizes fiber rich complex carbohydrates and omega-3 rich foods, like wild fish, is more likely to be the best option for your heart health.

- / -
APOE

Good news, you don’t carry any copies of the ApoE4 gene which has been associated with increased systemic inflammation, especially in response to high saturated fat intake, and increased risk for the development of several neurodegenerative disorders.

20% SaturatedLean grass fed beef, avocado, pastured poultry, wild game
30% MonounsaturatedAvocado, olives and olive oil, macadamia nuts, pecans, almonds and almond butter, cashews, pistachios, brazil nuts
30% Polyunsaturated omega 3Wild salmon, mackerel, walnuts, hemp seeds and hemp milk, flax seeds, chia seeds, algal oil
20% Polyunsaturated omega 6Walnuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds
AvoidFatty meats, pork, palm oil, dairy, seed oils, vegetable oils, butter, coconut products
Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
LDL-P
<1,000 nmol/L
1,000-1,599 nmol/L
>1,599 nmol/L
APOB
<80 mg/dl
80-120 mg/dl
>120 mg/dl
LDL-C
<100 mg/dl
100-160 mg/dl
>160 mg/dl
Triglycerides
<150 mg/dl
150-200 mg/dl
>200 mg/dl

Glycemic Breakout

Mixed Carb

You are able to process a wide range of carbohydrates, including on occasion, some higher glycemic carbs.

Carbohydrates are types of “macromolecules” built from individual sugar molecules. They can exist as simple sugar molecules (monosaccharides), or more complex chains of two or more sugar molecules (disaccharides and polysaccharides). The simple sugars are turned into glucose and rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine. By contrast complex carbohydrates are slower to digest and take more time to be converted into glucose. Complex carbohydrates are beneficial because they ferment in the colon where they feed the “good guy” microbes in the gut, which in turn produce short chain fatty acids, which are protective against conditions like leaky gut.

It is this process of breaking down and absorbing carbohydrates that causes our blood sugar levels to rise. The simple “fast carbs,” like bagels, cause an immediate spike, whereas the complex “slow carbs,” like rolled oats, don’t spike blood sugar as rapidly. When blood sugar rises, the pancreas makes insulin, which is the hormone responsible for helping the body absorb glucose. Our cells love glucose because they can use it to make energy. Historically, pure glucose was in short supply and our neolithic ancestors would have gorged on it whenever possible. However, these days, with the prevalence of processed foods, simple sugars are too readily available. This has caused changes in the average person’s blood sugar levels. Elevated blood sugar levels, in turn, are associated with diseases like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and even cancer.

Highest Glycemic Foods

These foods quickly convert into sugar in the body:

Bread icon
White and whole wheat bread
Corn tortillas icon
Corn tortillas
Cereal icon
Processed cereals
Potatoes icon
White potatoes
Instant oats icon
Instant oats
Rice icon
White rice

Some of us are at greater risk for chronically elevated blood sugar levels than others who use “carb fuel” more readily. For these people, insulin can’t get rid of all the sugar in the blood and the storage options for glucose become full. This leaves blood sugar chronically elevated, which causes inflammation. It also causes the body to convert the unused sugar and carbohydrate into triglyceride fats, which can be bad for heart health. The glycemic index (GI) metric has been developed to help us identify how rapidly our body will convert carbohydrate sources into glucose. A GI value of 55 is often identified as the cutoff between low and high-GI foods. Regardless of genetics, as a general rule, it is always best to lean towards lower GI slow carb sources.Our panel of SNPs is specifically targeted at predicting how you will respond to various carbohydrate sources.

After analyzing your carbohydrate genes, the good news is that you are more likely to perform well on a mixed carbohydrate diet. You should feel free to include some high-GI fast carb foods, but should always attempt to maintain a majority low-GI slow carb intake. While you have a genetic profile that can more efficiently clear the spikes in blood sugar they cause, refined grains, such as corn tortillas, bread products and pasta are not healthy options as a staple, regardless of genetics. They can be enjoyed as a treat, but should be limited to a few portions per week as refined carbohydrates and sugar can negatively impact the health of the microbiome.

To play along at home, work with your doctor to measure heart health markers like triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, and if you have access to a more advanced lab, VLDL. We would predict that, unless you are eating a large amount of sugar and fast carbs, these markers are more likely to be in a healthy range and that LDL-C could trend high when an excess of saturated fat is consumed.

10% SugarsOrganic fruits, berries, local honey, banana
65% FiberYams, sweet potatoes, potatoes, cassava root, avocado, kale, leafy greens, coconut, spinach, broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, green beans, sauerkraut, kimchi
25% GrainsRolled oats, buckwheat, quinoa, wild rice, brown rice, white rice, amaranth
AvoidRefined sugars, processed wheat products, processed corn products, corn chips
Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
Fasting blood glucose
<70-99 mg/dl
100-125 mg/dl
<70 or >125 mg/dl
HbA1c
<5.7%
5.7-6.4%
>6.4%

Wheat Score

Good

Based on a review of your wheat genes, you are more likely to be able to incorporate wheat into a healthy diet. However, scoring well on wheat tolerance from a genetic standpoint does not always mean you will thrive eating a diet high in processed wheat products. Unfortunately, many of the processed wheat products in America, such as pretzels and crackers, contain pesticides, such as glyphosate, that many are sensitive to. Eating small batch bread products and sourdough from specialty bakeries, as well as wheat products from bakeries in Europe, should not be a problem for you subject to blood sugar and carbohydrate recommendations outlined in your diet plan.

Protein Breakout

Mixed Proteins

An excess of dietary protein is sub optimal for all genotypes, however, you are genetically suited to a diet that incorporates both animal and plant proteins.

We get to protein last, but not because protein isn’t important. Eating enough protein is vital to ensure the body has sufficient building materials to make its own proteins, and proteins can even act as an alternative energy source when fat and carbohydrate stores are low. However, digesting these complex molecules can be a difficult process and there are several ways in which nutritional wellbeing can be affected.

As a Mediterrranean genotype, you should have little issue digesting protein from a wide variety of sources. You do not carry markers for lactose or histamine intolerance. Given the slight reduction in saturated fat intake associated with the Mediterranean diet, omega 3 rich fish like wild salmon, lean animal protein, and whole food sources of plant proteins are the best bet for staple foods.

55% PlantLentils, black beans, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, pinto beans, navy beans, chickpeas, walnuts, broccoli, natto
15% MeatSmall portions of lean grass fed beef, pasture raised poultry, wild game
25% SeafoodWild salmon, sardines, cod, shellfish
5% DairyGoat and sheep dairy products, pasture eggs
AvoidProcessed meats, fatty meat, pork
Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
Uric Acid
<7 mg/dl
7-10 mg/dl
>10 mg/dl
C reactive protein
<1 mg/dl
1-3 mg/dl
>3 mg/dl

HDL:LDL Ratio

Along with fat, cholesterol has long been thought of as the other dietary bad boy. While often lumped together with dietary fat, cholesterol is actually a distinct molecule with many important functions. Cholesterol was, and often still is, thought of as something that you should aim to reduce. However, as new research emerges, health authorities are taking a softer stance on cholesterol. Notably, the USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee reversed its long-standing recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol intake in 2015.

The issue is not so much cholesterol as where it ends up in the body. Cells need cholesterol to function, but cholesterol does damage when it ends up in the artery wall. Cholesterol is transported through the blood by lipoproteins, which you can think of as “cholesterol taxis.” In fact, you’ve probably heard of low-density lipoproteins (LDL - often associated with saturated fats) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL - often associated with unsaturated fats). The LDL taxis deliver cholesterol to tissues throughout the body, but sometimes take a wrong term and end up sticking to the artery walls. Too many taxis taking wrong turns can eventually lead to heart disease. By contrast, the HDL taxis are responsible for removing excess cholesterol to the liver, and are much better navigators.

Certain genetics markers are associated with an increased number of LDL cholesterol taxis on the road, and the greater the number of LDL taxis, or particles, the greater the risk for heart disease. Saturated fat consumption will raise LDL particle numbers for some genotypes dramatically, and have little impact for others. In addition, genetics play a role in the ratio between LDL to HDL, which is also an important factor in the heart disease discussion. As such, we report on the LDL genes as well as the genetic factors that play a role in LDL:HDL ratio.

Your LDL Genes

We have identified that you may have issues maintaining a good HDL:LDL ratio and would therefore recommend observing your circulating LDL:HDL ratio, which can be determined with a simple non-invasive lab test. However, by maintaining a diet low in saturated fats you should naturally be addressing this issue. Food choice doesn’t have as big of an impact on HDL as it does LDL, so if you find your numbers are out of range, try incorporating more plant based foods that have been shown to help decrease LDL, such as olive oil, beans, certain whole grains like oats, flax, nuts, chia seeds, and even avocados. When LDL markers are out of range, it can be a good idea to cut down even further on the amount of saturated fat consumed in the diet.

Discuss these lab tests with your doctor to make sure the custom nutrition plan is working.
Lab Test NameOptimalBorderlineHigh Risk
LDL-C
<100 mg/dl
100-160 mg/dl
>160 mg/dl
HDL-C
>50 mg/dl
40-50 mg/dl
<40 mg/dl

Methylation

Methylation has been a hot topic the last few years, but what is it? At the biochemical level, methylation refers to the addition of a methyl group to another molecule. This addition of a simple methyl group can fundamentally change the function of proteins, the expression of our genes and a whole host of other processes in the body as well.

If you’re interested in nutrigenomic genes, the most famous one of all sits in the methylation cycle which converts dietary folate into a variety of other products key in the processes described above. MTHFR C677T is perhaps the most well studied and well understood nutrition related SNP out there, and as it sits centrally in the methylation cycle is often linked with methylation issues in the body.

It is important to note though that while the MTHFR enzyme is incredibly important in regulating methylation it doesn’t act alone and there are numerous other enzymes involved in the pathway, many of which have their own associated SNPs. One important fact to remember when looking at the methylation cycle is the role of B vitamins, nearly every enzyme in the cycle requires a B vitamin co-factor in order to function correctly, providing us with the ideal mechanism to improve their function.

Your Methylation status: High Risk

Based on a review of all your SNPs in the methylation cycle we have determined that you are at a high risk of having issues with this pathway. We would therefore recommend that you consider supplementing your diet with a moderate to high dose B multivitamin that includes the methylated version of these vitamins. You may also wish to investigate each SNP at an individual level and tailor your vitamin B intake accordingly, but we would always recommend starting at a very low dose, and working upwards, while ensuring you have a ready supply of other B vitamins in your diet. Do not take any new supplement without first discussing with your doctor. For information on choosing a B vitamin and selecting dose, see this blog post.

Sterol Absorption

Sterols are the plant versions of cholesterol. Just as cholesterol is found only in animals, sterols are found only in plants. Plant sterols are widely regarded as healthy, however, the benefits of these fats depends largely on how much of them we absorb. When people hyper absorb sterol or cholesterol, the increased levels circulating in the blood can be bad for heart health. Therefore, whether foods like nuts and seeds, avocados, and oils are healthy for us depends to a large degree on sterol absorption. Some scientists believe enhanced absorption of sterol is also sign of increased absorption of cholesterol, but the jury is still out. It should also be pointed out that there is a fundamental difference between plant sterol found in whole plant foods and processed fats found in oils. The process of making oil causes much of the fat to become damaged, which makes it dangerous to health when consumed in large amounts, or when heated for cooking. For more on vegetable oil in the diet, see this blog post.

Low Absorber

You are unlikely to absorb sterol in foods like avocado, nuts and seeds, and high quality oils, such as avocado and olive oil. These foods can be eaten as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

Top Micronutrients

Our ability to maintain healthy levels of many micronutrients is genetic. Below we evaluate your genetic ability to maintain healthy levels of important micronutrients and, where applicable, offer suggestions for supplementation to discuss with your doctor.

Vitamin D

Optimal

Vitamin D, sometimes called the sunshine vitamin, is key in regulating the amount of calcium and phosphate in our body which is vital for regulating bone health. Active vitamin D is produced in our skin and so many of us in more northern regions of the world can be deficient, however there are also numerous genetic factors which can also influence how much vitamin D our bodies can generate and how efficiently it’s used.

From a genetic angle you should produce sufficient vitamin D without resorting to supplements. However if you live in a region that receives less natural sunshine you should still consider supplementation with small doses of vitamin D a couple times per week. If your diet type allows fish, oily fish like sardines can also be a good natural source of Vitamin D. Because Vitamin D supplements increase absorption of calcium, and because calcium draws down on magnesium levels, you may want to consider a low dose magnesium supplement alongside the Vitamin D. Talk to your doctor before starting any new supplement regimen.

Best whole food sources of Vitamin D

  • Fresh Atlantic herring - 1,628 IU per 3.5-ounce serving
  • Wild salmon - 988 IU of vitamin D per 3.5 ounce serving
  • Cod liver oil - 450 IU per teaspoon
  • Sardines - 272 IU per 3.5 oz. serving
  • Oysters - 320 IU per 3.5 oz. serving (about a dozen oysters)

Vitamin A

Stay Balanced

Vitamin A is a powerful antioxidant which also plays a role in many other cellular functions, and can have a dramatic influence on the expression of genes. Recent studies have suggested that high levels of supplementation with vitamin A have been linked with the development of cancer so we recommend sourcing the majority of your vitamin A from your diet. We are interested here in a single gene for vitamin A, BCO1.

Your SNPs in BCO1 suggest that you may want to increase your vitamin A intake to maintain a healthy level. This can be achieved by including leafy green vegetables (kale, spinach etc) and reddish vegetables (peppers, tomatoes, carrots etc.), as well as sweet potatoes in your diet. If your diet type allows for some animal protein, pastured chicken breast, wild salmon, goat cheese and small portions of grass fed beef liver every few weeks can all help maintain Vitamin A levels.

Best Whole Food Sources of Beta Carotene and Vitamin A:

  • Grass fed beef liver - 6,421 mcg in 1 small slice
  • Cod liver oil - 1,350 mcg in 1 tsp.
  • Sweet potatoes - 13308μg per cup beta carotene
  • Carrots - 12998μg per cup beta carotene
  • Dark leafy greens - 11318μg per cup beta carotene

Vitamin B2

Optimize

Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin acts as coenzyme and plays a major role in the production of ATP, the bodies “energy currency”. Deficiencies in riboflavin are uncommon in the West as many of our foods are enriched during their processing. However, when Riboflavin deficiency is present, symptoms can include inflammation of the skin, especially around the lips and the mouth, light sensitivity and anaemia.

Analysis of your vitamin B2 related SNPs suggests that you should strongly consider supplementation. If you choose to supplement we would recommend a starting dose of around 1 mg per day, rising to a maximum of 2 mg, and be sure to take B2 as part of a B vitamin complex. Check with your doctor before starting any new supplement regimen. For more on supplementing with B vitamins, how to choose a dose, and which products to consider, see our guide to choosing a B complex.

Best whole food sources of Vitamin B2:

  • Fortified tofu - 1mg in 1 cup
  • Spinach - 0.4 milligram in 1 cup cooked
  • Almonds - 0.3 milligram in 1 ounce
  • Eggs - 0.2 milligram in 1 large egg
  • Grass fed beef liver - 1mg in 1 ounce

Vitamin B12

Optimal

Vitamin B12 (often called cyanocobalamin,hydroxocobalamin, or methylcobalamin) is involved in the synthesis of DNA in a similar fashion to folate. When choosing a B vitamin supplement, it is usually best to take them as part of a B complex. Avoid cyanocobalamin products in favor of methylcobalamin as the methylated B vitamins are higher quality and more bioavailable. Exercise cautious taking very high doses of B12 (anything over 2,000 mcg) for any extended period of time. Whilst there is a large overlap in function between B12 and folate, they both seem to play an important role in the maintenance of adult neurological tissue in the brain. As such a deficiency can lead to several severe neurological disorders such as a loss of sensation, dementia and other neurological conditions, which unlike other vitamin B deficiencies may not be reversible.

Your vitamin B12 related SNPs point towards you having no issues with maintaining suitable levels for normal function, however, if you have been assigned to a Okinawan, Villager, Vegetarian or Wayoan diet type you may wish to consider supplementation as most major sources of vitamin B12 are animal based. For more on supplementing with B vitamins, how to choose a dose, and which products to consider, see our guide to choosing a B complex. Avoid mega dose B12 supplements (anything above 2,000 mcg) and talk to your doctor before starting any new supplement regimen.

Best whole food sources of Vitamin B12:

  • Clams - 84 mcg in a 3 oz. serving
  • Grass fed beef liver - 70 mcg in a 3 oz. serving
  • Trout - 5.4 mcg in a 3 oz. serving
  • Wild salmon - 4.9 mcg in a 3 oz. serving
  • Canned tuna - 2.5 mcg in a 3 oz. serving

Vitamin B6

Stay Balanced

Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine is vital in the synthesis of amino acids and important neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and GABA. Deficiency of pyridoxine gives rise to symptoms including inflammation and a lack of energy or confusion. Although severe deficiency is uncommon low level deficiency can be relatively common and as with other B vitamin deficiencies can be missed or misdiagnosed.

Analysis of your vitamin B6 SNPs suggests that you may want to consider supplementation. This can be achieved through dietary adjustment, with chickpeas and fruits such as bananas being particularly rich sources. If you do chose to supplement we would recommend a low dose as excessive B6 supplementation can cause unpleasant side effects. Most good B Complex formulas contain small doses of B6. Taking one of these products once or twice a week would likely give sufficient amounts of B6. For more on supplementing with B vitamins, how to choose a dose, and which products to consider, see our guide to choosing a B complex. Discuss any new supplement regimen with your doctor.

Best whole food sources of Vitamin B6:

  • Canned chickpeas - 1.1 mg per 1 cup
  • Grass fed beef liver - 0.9 mg in a 3 oz. serving
  • Wild salmon - 0.6 mg per 3 oz. serving
  • Pastured chicken breast - 0.5 mg per 3 oz. serving
  • Boiled potatoes - 0.4 mg per 1 cup serving

Iron

Optimize

Iron is a key cofactor for many enzymes, and is also an important component of hemoglobin, the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to all the other organs of your body. Low levels of iron are therefore often associated with anemia.

Analysis of your iron related SNPs suggests that you may strongly benefit from increasing levels in your body. Whilst direct supplementation is possible there are some unpleasant side effects associated with over supplementation and so dietary adjustment is often preferred. Dark green leafy foods such as spinach and many nuts and seeds are rich sources of iron, and interestingly incorporating cast iron cooking equipment into your kitchen can also dramatically increase your intake.

Best whole food sources of iron:

  • Oysters - 8 mg per 3 oz. serving
  • White beans canned - 8 mg per 1 cup
  • Cacoa - 7 mg per 3 oz. serving
  • Grass fed beef liver - 5 mg per 3 oz. serving
  • Lentils - 3 mg per ½ cup serving

Magnesium

Optimize

You may want to discuss a magnesium supplement with your doctor. Magnesium is a key cofactor for more than 300 biochemical processes throughout the body and it’s likely your levels could be low. Magnesium plays a role in supporting a healthy immune system and maintaining normal nerve and muscle function, including the heart muscle. Low levels of magnesium are therefore associated with several health issues including poor appetite, muscle weakness, and poor sleep, which is often associated with restless leg syndrome.

Analysis of your magnesium related SNPs suggests that you should strongly consider increasing your magnesium intake to ensure good quality sleep and a more robust immune system. Dark leafy greens, most whole grains and other mineral rich foods such as avocado or under-ripe bananas are good sources of magnesium assuming they jive with your diet type. You may also wish to discuss with a healthcare professional about testing for magnesium deficiency.

Best whole food sources of magnesium:

  • Almonds (dry roasted) - 80 mg per 1 oz. serving
  • Boiled spinach - 78 mg per ½ cup serving
  • Cashews (dry roasted) - 74 mg per 1 oz. serving
  • Soy milk - 61 mg per 1 cup serving
  • Black beans - 60 mg per ½ cup cooked

Sodium

Sodium plays a key role in the body maintaining proper fluid balance and is also important in maintaining nerve and muscle function. However high levels are common in western diets and are associated with increased blood pressure and other cardiovascular disorders.

Consider Reduction

Analysis of your sodium SNPs suggests that you may wish to consider reducing your sodium intake. Salted, cured and other processed foods are high sources of sodium and intake should therefore be minimised.

Detox

Unfortunately our physical environments are increasingly compromised by man-made pollutants. Believe it or not, genetics play a role in how effective our bodies are at excreting and dealing with these toxins. Below, we estimate your ability to deal with toxins in the environment.

High Risk

You are less likely to produce adequate levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, two antioxidants the body uses to excrete and neutralize toxins. This does not necessarily mean levels of these antioxidants will be low, however, you may benefit from limiting exposure to air pollution and other environmental toxins, even including mercury dental amalgams, chlorine in tap and shower water, and heavy metals found in large species of fish, such as tuna and swordfish. For a list of products we have identified as being green and free from toxic elements, check out our ecoHome directory.

Sleep

Getting adequate sleep is crucial to maintaining a good state of health. However, sticking to the basics of good sleep hygiene can be difficult in our fast paced modern world. In this section of your report, we offer insight into your sleep genes and what you can do to get the best sleep possible.

Good

Sleep is a complex topic which makes giving a single sleep “score” difficult. For that reason, we have broken aspects of your sleep score down into the chronotype and caffeine sub-sections below. As a general rule, your overall sleep score suggests that you should have no issues sleeping soundly as long as you maintain a healthy diet, minimize stress and maintain good sleep hygiene. Poor sleep hygiene, like eating large meals before bed, lots of screen time, having more than one alcoholic drink, or overdoing it with caffeine, will impact sleep regardless of genetic predisposition.

Sleep Hygiene Best Practices
  • Limit caffeine, especially after noon
  • Power down phones and laptops at least two hours before bed
  • Make sure your bedroom gets as dark as possible
  • Turn off lamps and bright lights around the house a few hours before you plan on going to bed
  • Try to get bright light exposure in the morning to help set circadian rhythm
  • Eat your last meal at least 3 hours before heading off to bed
  • More than one alcoholic drink will hurt sleep
  • Know your “sleep hacks.” CBD, magnesium, cold exposure in the morning, or a warm epsom salt bath at night, have all been reported to aid in sleep and recovery.

Caffeine

Who doesn’t love waking up to a fresh cup of black coffee or a hot cup of tea? The morning caffeine ritual is part of daily life the world over, but the way our bodies break down the caffeine we drink varies a great deal by genetics.

Caffeine per cup (8 oz) of various beverages
Coffee pot icon
Coffee (brewed)
95-165 mg
Energy drink can icon
Energy drink
27-164 mg
Black tea icon
Black tea (brewed)
25-48 mg
Soda icon
Cola
24-46 mg
Green tea icon
Green tea (brewed)
25-29 mg
Coffee cup icon
Decaf coffee (brewed)
2-5 mg
Fast metabolizer

Congratulations, you are likely a fast metabolizer of caffeine. This means your body does a good job of breaking down caffeine once it enters your system and the caffeine you do drink has a shorter half life. Nevertheless, we still recommend avoiding all caffeine within 6 hours of your usual bedtime. For more on the genetics of caffeine metabolism, see this blog post.

Maximum daily dose: 200-400 mg per day

Chronotype

Early to bed, early to rise? Not for all of us. Genetic research is teaching us that we all have built in predispositions for optimal bedtime and peak productivity. Your body’s preferred work and sleep clock is called a “chronotype” and there are three basic types: Larks, Hummingbirds and Owls.

Lark

Your genetics suggest that you are likely to be a morning-lark and should therefore focus on completing activities that require a lot of concentration in the morning, saving more mundane or physical work till the afternoon. In the same vein, while you may be able to leap out of bed in the morning, this is predicated on the right bedtime and a good night’s sleep. As a general rule, you will do best with a bedtime before 10 pm.

Optimal bedtime: between 9 - 10pm

Optimal work hours: between 6am - 11am

Cannabis

While many find benefit from the non-psychoactive compound in hemp, called cannabidiol, or “CBD,” emerging research is teaching us that no two people respond in exactly the same way to the THC in cannabis products. THC is the psychoactive compound in marijuana responsible for the “high” people experience when they use cannabis as a drug.

While most everyone can tolerate CBD, THC, and especially synthetic THC, is another story. In people with genetic predispositions, large doses of THC can cause a downturn in mental health. And regardless of genetics, those under 25 years of age, whose brains are still developing, should avoid THC. If cannabis products are legal in your state and you choose to experiment with THC, it is crucially important to understand the dose you are taking and whether you are genetically more likely to have a sub-optimal reaction to cannabis.

Healthy response

You do not carry genetic markers linked to reductions in mental health when consuming THC in cannabis products. However, despite a very low risk for any psychological or metabolic issues, we recommend avoiding synthetic THC altogether.

  • Cannabis dose: Below 70 mg of THC per day of use
  • Ideal THC content: Max of 50% THC content. Look for products with higher CBD ratios.

Alcohol

Government recommendations that allow for 2 drinks per day for men, and 1 drink per day for women, call for a lot of drinking! Having a glass of wine with dinner every so often can be relaxing, however, not everyone metabolizes alcohol in the same way. For the most part, the health benefits of alcohol are overstated. Below, we break down your genetic ability to metabolize alcohol.

In moderation

Good news, you are likely to efficiently and effectively metabolize the byproducts of alcohol. This gives you a little more wiggle room with an evening glass of wine, however, we still recommend sticking well within dietary guidelines.

Alcoholic beverages per week:

  • 7 units per week for men (never more than 2 drinks at one sitting)
  • 4 units per week for women (never more than two drinks at one sitting)

Sulfur Tolerance

Normal

The CBS genes make an enzyme called cystathionine beta synthase (CBS). CBS helps convert homocysteine to cystathionine as the first step in the transsulfuration pathway. You can think of the transsulfuration pathway as the complicated chain of biochemical reactions the body uses to metabolize sulfur. Perhaps the transsulfuration pathway’s most important job is to help produce glutathione, a powerful antioxidant we need to stay in good health.

When the CBS gene is highly active, the body cycles through homocysteine at a very rapid pace. Since the body makes ammonia as a byproduct of metabolizing sulfur, some have theorized that increased CBS activity results in higher levels of ammonia in the blood, which can lead to sulfur sensitivity in some individuals.

Based on an analysis of CBS and your other sulfur metabolism genes, it is unlikely that you will have issues metabolizing sulfur. Your sulfur metabolism should be normal. This means you are less likely to have sensitivity to sulfur containing supplements like glutathione, NAC, alpha lipoic acid, epsom salt, garlic, taurine, and others. Sulfur rich cruciferous vegetables should be included in your diet many times per week.

NSAID Tolerance

Limited Use

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve or Naprosyn) can be metabolized differently depending on our genetics. These drugs are one of the more common causes of allergic reactions, especially at higher doses. During an allergic reaction your immune cells release histamine which is an attempt to protect the delicate tissues of the body from further harm, but despite your body’s best intentions, histamine actually induces a lot of the symptoms associated with allergies.

Histamine is normally broken down by an enzyme called diamine oxidase (DAO) which is encoded for by the AOC1 gene. There are several important SNPs in this gene, but for NSAID purposes, we are looking at rs10156191. This gene is associated with lower DAO levels. Since NSAID drugs further lower DAO, those with variants in rs10156191 tend to have sensitivity to drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen. There are also two SNPs in CYP genes, rs1799853 and rs10509681 which regulate your response to NSAIDs, with those carrying risk alleles being at heightened risk of intestinal bleeding.

Analysis of your SNPs suggests that you are unlikely to have an allergic reaction to NSAID drugs. However, this doesn’t mean these drugs are a good choice for pain management as they tend to damage the lining of the stomach and cause internal bleeding.

Methodology and Your Genes

Methodology

The purpose of this app is to inform you about the influence your personal genetic code can have on your nutritional intake and general wellbeing.

Split into several sections our main focus is the overall dietary plan. By analyzing 66 SNPs related to fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism we have assigned you to a particular diet type with associated recipes and strategies you can use to maximise your well being. This top level overview is then further broken down into fat, carbohydrate and protein sections where we discuss your SNPs in detail, recommend personal superfoods and foods to avoid and potential lab tests to discuss with your doctor.

The SNPs in each category have been assigned a Science Grade based on a thorough review of the scientific literature, which weights its importance in our models. The more and better quality the evidence, the higher the weighting. We then assess your genotyping results against every SNP, identifying which (if any SNPs) may be of interest to you while also generating your dietary plan, and various risk scores.

We believe this approach of giving you top level information, but also allowing you to delve further into specific categories, genes and even SNPs is the best way to provide you with specific information to inform your dietary and supplementary choices.

Your Genes

Below, we've listed the polymorphisms that had the greatest impact in formulating your diet type.

Macronutrient Fat

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
PPARGrs1801282AT- / -
APOA2rs5082AG+ / -
FTOrs9939609AT- / -
FTOrs1121980AG- / -
ACErs4343GA+ / -
TCF7L2rs7903146TC- / -
FADS1rs174547CT- / -
ABCG8rs6544713TC- / -
ADIPOQrs17366743CT- / -
CBSrs28934891GC- / -
CBSrs5742905GA- / -
NOS3rs1800779GA+ / -
NOS3rs1800783AT+ / -
MTHFRrs1801133AG+ / -
MTHFRrs1801131GT+ / -
LPArs10455872GA- / -
LPArs3798220CT- / -
LIPGrs4939883TC- / -
LIPCrs10468017CT+ / -
LPLrs12678919AG+ / +
LDLRrs6511720TG- / -
ADCY5rs11708067AG+ / -
APOEN/AN/AN/A- / -

Saturated Fats

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
APOA2rs5082AG+ / -
FTOrs9939609AT- / -
FTOrs1121980AG- / -
ACErs4343GA+ / -
TCF7L2rs5082TC- / -
FADS1rs5082CT- / -

Lipoproteins

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
LPArs10455872GA- / -
LPArs3798220CT- / -
LIPGrs4939883TC- / -
LIPCrs10468017CT+ / -
LPLrs12678919AG+ / +
LDLRrs6511720TG- / -

Carbohydrates

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
PLIN1rs894160TC+ / -
PPARGrs1801282GC- / -
ADIPOQrs17366743CT- / -
FTOrs1421085CT- / -
ADCY5rs11708067AG+ / -
FADS1rs174550CT- / -
GCKRrs780094AC- / -
MTNR1Brs10830963GC+ / -
ADRA2Ars10885122TG- / -
MADD -->rs7944584TA+ / -

Dairy

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
MCM6rs4988235GA- / -
MCM6rs182549CT- / -

Histamine

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
ALDH2rs671AG- / -
AOC1rs10156191TC- / -
AOC1rs1049742TC- / -
AOC1rs35070995CA- / -
AOC1rs45558339GA- / -
AOC1rs1049793GC- / -
IL8rs4073AT- / -

Methylation

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
MTHFRrs1801131GT+ / -
MTHFRrs1801133AG+ / -
CBSrs28934891GC- / -
CBSrs5742905GA- / -
MTRrs1805087GA- / -
MTRRrs1801394GA+ / -
COMTrs4680AG+ / +
COMTrs4633TC+ / +
MTHFD1rs2236225AG+ / +
SLC19A1rs1051266TC- / -

Gluten Intolerance

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade

Detox

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
G6PDrs1050828TC+ / -
G6PDrs1050829TA- / -
GPX1rs1050450AG+ / -
GSTP1rs1695GA+ / -
NQO1rs1800566AG- / -
SOD2rs4880AG- / -
SOD3rs1799895GC- / -

Sitosterol

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
ABCG5rs6756629AG+ / -
ABCG8rs137852987AG- / -
ABCG8rs4148211GA- / -
ABCG8rs4148217AC+ / -
ABCG8rs6544718CT- / -
ABCG5/8rs11887534CG+ / -

Micronutrients

Vitamin D
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
GCrs2282679GT- / -
CYP2R1rs10741657GA/td>- / -
CYP2R1rs10500804GT- / -
CYP2R1rs2060793GA+ / -
VDRrs2228570AG+ / -
VDR HaploN/AN/AN/A+ / +
Vitamin A
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
BCO1rs12934922TA+ / -
BCO1rs7501331TC- / -
Vitamin B2
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
MTHFRrs1801133AC- / -
NOS3rs1800779GA- / -
NOS3rs1799983TG+ / -
NOS3rs1799983AT+ / -
Vitamin B12
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
FUT2rs492602AG+ / -
MTRRrs1801394GA- / -
Vitamin B6
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
CBSrs1801181AC+ / +
NBPF3rs4654748CT+ / +
Iron
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
BCO1rs12934922TA+ / -
BCO1rs7501331TC+ / +
CYP2R1rs10741657GA- / -
CYP2R1rs10500804GT- / -
CYP2R1rs2060793GA+ / -
NOS3rs1800779GA+ / -
NOS3rs1799983TG- / -
NOS3rs1800783AT- / -
Sodium
GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
ACErs4343GA- / -
IL6rs1800795CG- / -
NOS3rs1800779GA- / -
NOS3rs1800783AT- / -

Sleep

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
ADArs73598374CT+ / -
GAD1rs12185692AA+ / -
GAD1rs769407TC- / -
GRIA3rs3848874TA- / -
GRIA3rs687577GC- / -
HTR2Ars6311CT+ / +
HTR2Ars6313G/td>A+ / +
HTR2Ars6314AG- / -
ADORA2Ars5751876TC- / -
PPARGC1Ars8192678TC- / -
ABCC9rs11046205GA- / -
MTNR1Brs6575353CT- / -
PRIMA1rs6575353AG+ / -

Caffeine

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
ADORA2Ars5751876TC+ / -
CYP1A1rs762551AC+ / -
PRIMA1rs6575353AG+ / +

Chronotype

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
CLOCKrs1868049AG- / -
PER3rs1558902CG- / -
PER3rs139315125AG- / -
FTOrs1558902AT- / -
ARNTLrs1868049TC- / -

Cannabis

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
AKT1rs2494732TC+ / +
COMTrs4680AG+ / -
FAAHrs324420CA- / -
CNR1rs806368TC- / -
CNR1rs6454674TG- / -
DRD2rs6277AG+ / -
CNR1rs2023239TC+ / +

Alcohol

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
ALDH2rs671GA+ / +
ALDH2rs1229984CT+ / -
KLBrs11940694GA- / -

Magnesium

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
MEIS1rs2300478TG- / -
BTBD9rs3923809GA- / -
BTBD9rs9357271TC+ / -
PTPRDrs1975197GA+ / -
GABArs2229940GT+ / +

Sulfur

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
CBSrs2851391CT+ / +
CBSrs6586282CT+ / +
CBSrs234706GA- / -
CBSrs5742905AG- / -
CBSrs4920037AG- / -
NOS3rs1799983GT+ / +
SUOXrs773115TC+ / -
ATP6V0A4rs6943456TC+ / -

NSAID

GeneSNPRisk AlleleNon-Risk AlleleYour GenotypeScience Grade
CYP2C9rs1799853CT+ / -
CYP2C8rs10156191TC+ / -
AOC1rs10156191CT+ / -

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